Electronic Refrigeration: Physics and Applications
Authors: Francesco Giazotto, Tero T. Heikkila, Arttu Luukanen, Alexander M. Savin, Jukka P. Pekola
Comments: 58 pages, 38 figures, submitted to Reviews of Modern Physics. High-resolution version available at this http URL
Subj-class: Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect; Superconductivity
We present an overview of solid-state micro-refrigeration, which is an emerging field with numerous perspective application areas. The discussion in this Review is based on the concept of electron energy distribution, and in particular, on controlling and probing it. The temperature of the electron gas is determined by this distribution: refrigeration is equivalent to narrowing it, and thermometry is simply probing its convolution with a function characterizing the measuring device. Temperature exists, strictly speaking, only in quasi-equilibrium, where the distribution is the Fermi-Dirac one. Interesting non-equilibrium deviations can also occur, due to slow relaxation rates of the electrons, e.g., among themselves or with lattice phonons. Observation and applications of non-equilibrium phenomena are also discussed. Our focus is at low temperatures, primarily below 4 K, where physical phenomena on mesoscopic scales and hybrid combinations of various types of materials, e.g., of superconductors, normal metals, insulators and doped semiconductors, open up a rich variety of device concepts. The present Review starts with the introduction to the theoretical concepts and results on thermal properties of mesoscopic structures. We then focus on thermometry and refrigeration with emphasis on the experimental status. An immediate application field of solid-state refrigeration and thermometry is in ultra-sensitive radiation detection, which we discuss after this. The Review also gives a summary of pertinent fabrication methods of the presented devices.
1 сообщение • Страница 1 из 1